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Man in Library


Northwind Institute has adapted the Turabian Style for all required papers in all courses.

What is Turabian?

Turabian is the student version of The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) designed for high school and college students that need to write papers that are not intended for publication. Both Turabian and CMOS are official Chicago styles.


Who uses Turabian?

Turabian is used by the humanities, social, and natural sciences. There are two citation methods within Turabian style which includes the traditional method of footnotes with a bibliography and the method of parenthetical references with a reference list at the end of the paper. Ask your professor which Turabian method is required for their class. 


Why do I need to use Turabian?

There are several important reasons to document your outside sources:


  • Avoid plagiarism

  • Demonstrate academic honesty and courtesy for the work of others

  • Allow readers to learn more about the topic

  • Build credibility for your work as you are citing experts to support your arguments

  • Allow others to conduct further research based on your work

Whether you choose to use a direct quotation or merely paraphrase someone else's idea, you must cite any idea that did not come from you. This includes but is not limited to text, images, computer code and charts.

Remember when in doubt, cite it!

Click on the Textbook Image to order textbooks, Hardcover, Paperback,or Spiral-bound versions of the Turabian Handbook.
Click on the PDF Image to access footnote examples developed by Northwind Institute Faculty to help you with your papers.
Microsoft 365 and Microsoft Word 2010 (or newer) can create Citations and a Bibliography in Turabian.
Select the Reference tab to access these features
Google Docs can create Citations and a Bibliography in Turabian.

Select the Tools from the MENU BAR and then Citations to access these features docs.jpg
How to use Wikipedia material in academic papers
Video Tips for Writing
Person Writing

How to present the quotes you are using in your paper.


For each quote use the following 3 paragraph format:

Paragraph 1: Introduce the quote with 2-4 sentences describing why you included the quote.

Paragraph 2: Indent the Quote and provide a footnote

Paragraph 3: Provide your reflection of your understanding of how the quote impacts the focus of your research.

Click on the PDF Image to access a Quote example

 to help you with your papers.

Topic Papers

Reflection Paper Outline:   
5-10 Pages
  • Introduction
  • Reflection on the Textbook Topic
  • Reflection on a Textbook Quote
    • Intro Paragraph​
    • Inset Quote
    • Reflection paragraph

      Include as many quotes as needed to complete your reflection on the Textbook.
  • Summary of Textbook implication for ministry
  • Conclusion of Student's Reflection on the textbook topic

Book Report Paper Outline:
3-5 Pages

  • Introduction

  • Critical Engagement

    • What you agree with and why

    • What you disagree with and why

    • What you would contribute to the topic

  • ·         Personal Engagement

  • ·         Summary

  • ·         Conclusion

Application Paper Outline:
5-10 Page Paper

  • Introduction

  • How you view this source in your ministry context

  • How you would use this source in your ministry

  • How you would use this source is a project

  • What principles have you learned from this source

  • Conclusion

Comparison Paper Outline:
10-15 Page Paper

  • Introduction

  • Summarize Source One

  • Summarize Source Two

  • Compare similarities

  • Contrast differences

  • Integrate your understanding of both sources

  • Conclusion

Final Papers

Tutorial Course Final Paper:
10-20 Pages
  • Introduction 
  • Reflection on Topic One
  • Reflection on Topic Two
  • Reflection on Topic Three
  • Reflection on Topic Four
  • Summary of the four Topic Reflections
  • Conclusion presenting the Student's understanding of the Course Content
Research Course Final Paper:
10-20 Pages
  • Introduction of the Research Topic
  • Research Summary on Source One
  • Research Summary on Source Two
  • Research Summary on Source Three
  • Research Summary on Source Four

    Include as many additional sources as needed to complete your research on the assigned topic of the course.

  • Summary of all Source Research
  • Conclusions of Research
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