Writing Guide

Northwind Theological Seminary has adopted the Turabian Style for all required papers in all courses.

What is Turabian?

Turabian is the student version of The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) designed for high school and college students that need to write papers that are not intended for publication. Both Turabian and CMOS are official Chicago styles.


Who uses Turabian?

Turabian is used by the humanities, social and natural sciences. There are two citation methods within Turabian style which includes the traditional method of footnotes with a bibliography and the method of parenthetical references with a reference list at the end of the paper. Ask your professor which Turabian method is required for their class. 


Why do I need to use Turabian?

There are several important reasons to document your outside sources:


  • Avoid plagiarism

  • Demonstrate academic honesty and courtesy for the work of others

  • Allow readers to learn more about the topic

  • Build credibility for your work as you are citing experts to support your arguments

  • Allow others to conduct further research based on your work

Whether you choose to use a direct quotation or merely paraphrase someone else's idea, you must cite any idea that did not come from you. This includes but is not limited to text, images, computer code and charts.

Remember when in doubt, cite it!

Click on the Textbook Image to order textbooks, Hardcover, Paperback,or Spiral-bound versions of the Turabian Handbook.
Click on the Citation Machine Image to use the online citation generator.
Be sure to select Turabian Style when using the Citation Machine website.
Click on the PDF Image to access footnote examples developed by Northwind Seminary Faculty to help you with you papers.
Microsoft 365 and Microsoft Word 2010 (or newer) can create Citations and a Bibliography in Turabian.
Select the Reference tab to access these features

How to present the quotes you are using in your paper.


For each quote use the following 3 paragraph format:

Paragraph 1: Introduce the quote with 2-4 sentences describing why you included the quote.

Paragraph 2: Indent the Quote and provide a footnote

Paragraph 3: Provide your reflection of your understanding of how the quote impacts the focus of your research.

Click on the PDF Image to access a Quote example

 to help you with your papers.

Northwind Theological Seminary has adopted the Narrative Research in Ministry approach for all Research Courses and Projects. 


We are in a real sense, our stories. Who we are, what we think, and how we act are all shaped by the many large and small stories that make up the discourse embedded in our multi-sensory social experience. It is this postmodern understanding of identity and reality that has prompted the authors to fashion a new way of thinking about doing research in faith communities today, particularly through a Doctor of Ministry program. It is our belief that, in order for faith communities to define themselves and to know what to do in ministry, they must first understand the multiple stories which intersect with a given ministry situation in their specific context.

NTS.Narrative Research.webp
Click on the Narrative Research in Ministry Textbook Image to order this required textbook for Doctoral Programs.
Reflection Paper Outline   
5-10 Pages
  • Introduction
  • Reflection on the Textbook Topic
  • Reflection on a Textbook Quote
    • Intro Paragraph​
    • Inset Quote
    • Reflection paragraph

      Include as many quotes as needed to complete your reflection on the Textbook.
  • Summary of Textbook implication for ministry
  • Conclusion of Student's Reflection on the textbook topic
Final Paper Outline
10-20 Pages
  • Introduction 
  • Reflection on Topic One
  • Reflection on Topic Two
  • Reflection on Topic Three
  • Reflection on Topic Four
  • Summary of the four Topic Reflections
  • Conclusion presenting the Student's understanding of the Course Content

Project Paper Requirements: 

10-20 page 


•       Project Description

•       Project Goals

•       Project Elements

•       Project Timeline

•       Project Evaluation

•       Project Summary 

Research Paper Outline
10-20 Pages
  • Introduction of the Research Topic
  • Research Summary on Source One
  • Research Summary on Source Two
  • Research Summary on Source Three
  • Research Summary on Source Four

    Include as many additional sources as needed to complete your research on the assigned topic of the course.

  • Summary of all Source Research
  • Conclusions of Research
Oxford Course Paper Outline
15-30 Pages
  • Introduction of Course Topic
  • Abstract
  • Reflection on Source One
  • Reflection on Source Two
  • Reflection on Source Three
  • Reflection on Source Four

    Include as many additional sources as needed to complete your research on the assigned topic of the course.
  • Summary of Source Research
  • Summary of Course Topic implication for ministry
  • Presentation of the Student's new understanding of the Course Topic

Degree Completion Requirements

  • Capstone Paper - Master in Ministry (Pastoral, Contextual, Specialized)  50 Pages

  • Portfolio Paper - Doctor in Ministry (Pastoral, Contextual, Specialized) 60 Pages

  • Doctoral Treatise - Doctor in Theology & Ministry - 80 pages

  • Doctoral Treatise - Doctor in Theology & Ministry - Advanced Study - 120 pages